اصطلاحات پزشکی سیستم اسکلتی

a.k.a. = also Known as .
Abduction= دور کردن از محور بدن
Absorptiometry= measurement of the amount of radiation absorbed (as by living tissue) especially to determine density
Acceleration= سرعت دادن ،شتاب
Accompany= همراه بودن
Acetabula= the cup-shaped hollow in the hipbone into which the head of the femur fits to form a ball-and-socket (حفره) joint
Acetabulum= the bony cup which receives the head of the thigh bone; حفره ء حقه اى استخوان لگن که محل اتصال بااستخوان ران است
Achondroplasia= is a genetic condition that results in abnormally short stature (قامت) and is the most common cause of short stature with disproportionately (بطور نامتناسب) short limbs (The arm or leg) .
Acromioclavicular (AC) joint = the junction (محل اتصال) between the acromion (part of the scapula that forms the highest point of the shoulder) and the clavicle.
Acromion= outer edge of the shoulder blade (تیغه)
Adduct= بمرکز نزدیک کردن
Adjacent= همجوار،دیوار بدیوار
Adjust= تعدیل کردن ،تنظیم کردن
Agenesis= imperfect organ development, impotence; فقدان، نبود
Aggravate= بدتر کردن ،خشمگین کردن
Ala= a flat wing-shaped process or winglike part of an organism,
Alignment= تطبیق دادن ،هم محور کردن
Aneurysm= a sac formed by localized dilatation of the wall of an artery, a vein, or the heart.
Angulation= زاویه دارى
Ankylosis= immobility (عدم تحرک) and consolidation (ادغام) of a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.
Anorexia= کم اشتهایى
Anterior= پیشین
Arthrodesis= surgical operation where a joint is fused in a certain position so preventing pain from movement
Arthroplasty= is surgery to relieve pain and restore range of motion by realigning or reconstructing a joint
Articulation= مفصل بندى
Assessment= ارزشیابى ،ارزیابى
Atlantoaxial= pertaining to the first and second cervical vertebrae which meet at a joint called the atlantoaxial joint.
Avulsion= pulling away tissue by force
Axillary= زیر بغلى
Axis= a line through the center of a body, or about which a structure revolves; مهره دوم گردن ،محورهاى مختصات
Bamboo = بامبو
Band= نوار
Bead= دانه تسبیحى
Bence Jones protein= Small protein, composed of a light chain of immunoglobulin, made by plasma cells.
Blade= تیغه
Blow= دمیدن هوا،صدمه ، ضربه
Blow-up= شکم دادگى
Blur= لکه‌، تیرگی‌، منظره‌ مه‌ الود، لک‌ کردن‌‌
Bow= قوس
Brace= an orthopedic appliance or apparatus used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position بابست محکم کردن ، اتل
Brim= لبه ،کنار،حاشیه
Brittle= ترد و شکننده
Bruise= کبودشدن‌، ضربت‌دیدن
Buckle= تا خوردن ،چین خوردن
Build up = بالا بردن توان ،جمع کردن ذخایر
Bulge= برامدن ،شکم دادن ،تحدب
Burn out= تمام شدن , خاتمه سوزش
Calcaneus= heel bone; the irregular quadrangular bone at the back of the tarsus.
Callus= a callus is the hard new bone substance that forms in an area of bone fracture; پینه
Cancellous= سوراخ سوراخ ،اسفنجى
Capacity= توانایى ،ظرفیت
Capitates= مانند سر
Capitulum= head of a bone, end of a bone; نوک یا سر کوچک
Carotid= pertaining to the carotid artery (Carotid canal is a passage through the petrous (سخت‌) part of the temporal bone that transmits the internal carotid artery.)
Carpal= wrist; مچى; any of the eight small bones of the wrist: hamate (بشکل قلاب), pisiform (شبیه نخود), triquetral, lunate (هلالى), trapezoid (ذوزنقه وار), trapezoium, scaphoid (زورقى), capitate (مانند سر)
Cartilaginous= غضروفى
Chalky= گچى
Chaotic= پرهرج‌ ومرج‌، بی‌ نظم‌
CHF= congestive heart failure .
Clavicle=bone linking the scapula and sternum, ترقوه
Clay= رس ،گل ،خاک کوزه گرى
Cleft= شکاف دار،ترک خورده
Clench= close or press together tightly, پرچ کردن
Closure= بندش ،بسته شدن
Clubfoot= a condition in which one or both feet are twisted into an abnormal position at birth; کج‌ پا، پاچنبری‌
Coccyx= triangular bone at the base of the spinal column
Cod liver= the liver of the common cod (نوعى ماهى)
Codman triangle= a term used to describe the triangular area of new subperiosteal bone
Coincidentally= by chance
Collagen= the main protein of connective tissue in animals and the most abundant (وافر) protein in mammals.
Comminuted= خردکردن ،ریز ریز کردن
Competency= جدیت ، صلاحیت ،لیاقت ،شایستگى
Completion= اجرا،انجام ، تکمیل
Compose= سرودن‌، ساختن‌
Compression= درهم فشردگى
Compromise= تراضى ،توافق ، در خطر کشف بودن
Concha= a structure that resembles a shell in shape (nasal concha= one of several turbinate (مارپیچ) bones in the nasal cavity); استخوان‌ صدفه‌
Condyle= (برامدگی‌ استخوان‌) rounded articular projection; (Helps to form joints)
Congenital= مادر زادى
Conjunction= اجتماع ،پیوستگى ،حرف ربط
Contracture= انقباض
Conventional= مرسوم‌
Convexity= برامدگى ،کوژى ،تحدب
Coracoid= a process of the scapula
Coronal= تاج گل, (Coronal suture is the suture between the parietal and frontal bones of the skull)
Coronoid= resembling the beak of a crow, مانند نوک کلاغ
Correlate= همبستگى داشتن ،مرتبط کردن
Correspond= مطابق بودن
Cortical= relating to or consisting of cortex; غشایى ،قشرى
Cortices= cortex = outer layer of tissue
Costa= 1-7 true, 8-12 false; دنده
Countercoup= a concussion (ضربه مغزى ،صدمه ) or shock produced by a blow or other injury
Coxa= the hip bone or hip joint.
Cranial= جمجمه اى
Creep= خزش
Crest= (نوک) narrow ridge (نوک) of bone, usually prominent; (Site of muscle and ligament attachment)
Cripple= لنگ‌، چلاق
Criteria= محتوى ،ضوابط،معیارها
Crutch= عصاى زیر بغل
C-spine= Cervical vertebrae
Cuboid= داراى شکل مکعب
Cuneiform= گوه ای شکل
Curettage= the cleansing of a diseased surface, as with a curet [a surgical instrument shaped like a scoop (چمچه)].
Curvature= انحناء
Cushing’s syndrome= a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the body’s tissues to high levels of the hormone cortisol. Signs : upper body obesity, a rounded face, increased fat around the neck.
Cyst= a closed sac that develops abnormally in some body structure
Debridement= surgical removal of dead tissue and foreign material from a wound
Decubitus= pressure sore, bedsore; horizontal position
Defective= ضعیف ،ناقص ، داراى کمبود
Delay= دیرکرد،تاخیر
Dens= tooth
Dense= چگال ،غلیظ،متراکم
Densitometer= an apparatus for measuring the optical density of a material, چگالى سنج
Dentin= عاج دندان
Deposit= ته نشین ،ذخیره کردن
Detail= جزئیات ، بتفصیل شرح دادن
Diabetes mellitus= disease in which the body’s ability to metabolize sugar is impaired
Diagonal= اریب ،دوگوشه ، متقاطع
Diaphysis= the main or mid section (shaft محور،استوانه) of a long bone.
Dimple= چاه‌ ‌، گودی‌
Discrepancy= تطابق نداشتن, اختلافات
Distal= دورازمرکز،دورازمبدا
Distortion= the state of being twisted out of normal shape or position, کج شکلى ، انحراف
Disuse= lack of use, neglect, غفلت ترک‌استعمال
Diverticulitis= inflammation of a diverticulum in the digestive tract
Diverticulum= a small bulging (برامدگی ورم‌) sac pushing outward from the colon wall
Division= تقسیم ،بخش
Dorsal= پشتى
Dorsum sellae= the posterior boundary of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone.
Drainage= emptying of liquid
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA) = a means of measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Two X-ray beams with differing energy levels are aimed at the patient’sbones.
Dual= دوتایى ،دولا،دوجنبه اى ، دو واحدى
Dwarfism= کوتولگى
Dysplasia= abnormality of development; alteration (تغییر ،دگرگونى) in size, shape, and organization of adult cells
Dyspnea= labored (تقلاکردن‌، کوشش‌ کردن‌) or difficult breathing
Effusion= escape of a fluid into a part; exudation or transudation
Eminence= برجستگى
Enchondroma= a benign growth of cartilage arising in the metaphysis of a bone
Endochondral= Growing or developing within cartilage
Endosteal= of or relating to the endosteum; located within bone or cartilage
Endosteum=the tissue lining the medullary cavity of a bone.
Enhance= کمک کردن ،تسهیل کردن ،بالابردن
Enhancer= تقویت گر
Epicondyle= a projection on a bone above a condyle (برامدگى استخوان) serving for the attachment of muscles and ligaments
Epiphysis= the name for a rounded end of a long bone.
Epiphysitis= an inflammation in the growth plate (physis) at the ends of the long bones (such as the cannon bone).
Episode= circumstance, event
Erode= فرسودن ، فرساییدن ،ساییدن
Escape= گریختن ، رهایى جستن ،خلاصى
Ethmoid=one of the eight bones of the cranium, غربالی
Eversion= برگردانى ،واژگونى ، پیچش به طرف خارج
Exostosis= a benign bony growth projecting outward from a bone surface; osteochondroma.
Expand= بسط ،توسعه ،پهن کردن
Expansile= انبساطى
Exposure= پرتوگیرى ، ظهور، ظاهر شدن عکس
Facet= (سطوح کوچک) smooth, nearly flat articular surface. (Helps to form joints)
Febrile= تبى
Femur= استخوان ران
Fetus= جنین
Feverish= تب دار،بیقرار
Fibrocartilagenous= relating to bone-like material
Fibrous dysplasia= an uncommon, benign disorder characterized by a tumor-like proliferation (تکثیر،ازدیاد) of fibro-osseous tissue.
Fissure= (شکاف) narrow, slitlike opening. (Depression and openings allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass)
Flex= خم کردن
Flexion= خمیدگی‌، انحناء‌
Fold= تا زدن یا شدن ،چین
Fontanel= ملاج
Foot= 30.48 centimeter
Foramen magnum= مجراى نخاع
Foramen= سوراخ, round or oval opening through a bone. (Allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass)
Forearm= the part of the arm between elbow and wrist, ساعد
Fossa= (فرورفتگى); shallow (کم‌ عمق‌), basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface.
Fragile= شکننده
Fray= ترس ،ساییدن ،فرسوده شدن
Frogleg= Frog Leg
Fusiform= دوک مانند،مخروطى
Fusion= ذوب ،اتصال ، امیختگى
Gap= شکاف ،درز
Glenoid= کاسه اى ،گود
Gluteal= pertaining to the buttocks
Gonad= غده جنسى شامل بیضه یا تخمدان
Graft= پیوند
Granulation= new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process
Greenstick= bone fracture in which one side of the bone is bent and the other side is broken
Groove= furrow (شیار).
Hamate= بشکل قلاب
Harrington rod= a threaded metal rod used to connect distraction (separation of joint surfaces) hooks in the stabilization of cervical vertebral instability.
Head=in anatomy: bony expansion (بسط) carried on a narrow neck. (Helps to form joints)
Heberden’s nodes= hard or bony swellings that can develop in the distal interphalangeal joints (DIP) .
Hemivertebra= a vertebra that is incompletely developed on one side
Hemolytic anemia= a condition in which there are not enough red blood cells in the blood, due to the premature destruction of red blood cells.
Hiatus= شکاف، فاصله
High-kV technique= chest radiography using a kilovoltage of at least 125 kVp, usually 140–150 kVp, to reduce patient dose and increase latitude (عرض جغرافیایى ،وسعت)
Humerus= استخوان بازو
Hunch= خم کردن ، قوز
Hunchback= پشت قوز
Hydrocephalus= abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles (cavity in an organ) of the brain
Hyoid= a U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue muscles, استخوان‌ لامی‌
Hypoparathyroidism= occurs when the glands produce too little PTH. Blood calcium levels fall, and phosphorus levels rise.
Iliopectineal= pertaining to the ilium and pubes
Ilium= upper section of the hipbone
Impingement= برخورد، تماس‌،اصابت
Inactivity= رکود،عدم فعالیت
Incontinence= inability to control urination or defecation بى اختیارى ، ناخوددارى
Indentation= ایجاد فرورفتگى ،دندانه گذارى
Inflame=دارای‌ اماس‌ کردن‌،ملتهب‌ کردن‌
Inguinal= وابسته بکشاله ران
Initially= اصلا”،درابتدا
Inlet= دهانه ، دخول
Insufficient= deficient, failing, inadequate, نارسا،نابسنده
Intermittent= بینابین ،نوبتى
Interpedicular distance = the distance measured between the pedicles .
Interphalangeal= located between fingers or toes
Interruption= قطع ،انقطاع
Involucrum= a layer of new bone growth outside existing bone seen in pyogenic osteomyelitis.
Inward= درونى ،داخل رونده
Ischemic= an insufficient supply of blood to an organ, usually due to a blocked artery
Ischial= استخوان نشیمنگاهى
Ischium= lower section of the hip bone, استخوان نشیمنگاهى
Ivory= دندان‌ فیل‌، رنگ‌ عاج‌
Jaw= فک
Jogging= اهسته‌ دویدن‌، هل‌ دادن‌
Jugular= pertaining to the throat; pertaining to the jugular vein (Jugular foramen is a passage between the temporal bone and the occipital bone, containing the internal jugular vein)
Jut= پیشرفتگی‌ داشتن‌، پیش‌ امدگی‌
Knobby= گره دار ، داراى برامدگى
Kyphosis= قوز،گوژ
Labrum= edge, rim, lip
Lamina= a plate or layer. For example, the lamina arcus vertebrae, usually just called the lamina, are plates of bone in each vertebral body
Laminectomy= excision (قطع ،برش) of the posterior arch of a vertebra
Laxity= سستى ،شلى
Legg-Calve-Perthe’s disease= Coxa plana= osteochondritis deformans .
Lengthwise= از درازا،از طول
Lesion= جراحت ،اسیب
Leukocytosis= افزایش تعداد گلبول هاى سفید خون
Limp= لنگ ،شل
Line= narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest. (Site of muscle and ligament attachment)
Linear= خطى ،طولى ،دراز
Lip= لبه
Longitudinal= در طول ،طولى
Lordosis= انحناى زیاد ستون فقرات بطرف جلو
Lucency= شفافى
Lucent= softly bright or radiant (تشعشع کننده), تابناک ،روشن وشفاف
Lumbar= کمرى
Lunate bone= one of the eight small wrist bones
Lunate= moon-shaped or crescentic; هلالى
Luxation= در رفتگى مفصل استخوان
Lytic= تجزیه ای
Malaise= weakness or general discomfort caused by an illness
Malleolar= mallealus; غوزکى
Malleolus= استخوان غوزک
Mandible= lower jaw bone, فک
Manipulation= ساختن چیزى با دست ، ،انجام با مهارت
Manubrium= the broad upper part of the sternum , with which the clavicles and first ribs articulate; دسته چاقویاکارد
Mastoid= پستان‌ مانند
Meatus= مجرا; canal-like passageway. (Allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass)
Medullary= pertaining to a medulla; pertaining to bone marrow; pertaining to the spinal cord; مغزى ،نخاعى
Metacarpophalangeal= of the metacarpus bone and the bones of the fingers
Metacarpus= palm; استخوانهاى کف دست
Metaphysis= the growing part of a long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis
Metatarsophalangeal= referring to both the metatarsus (استخوان میان کف پا) and the phalanges (بندانگشت) of the toes.
Minute= دقیقه ،دم ،ان ،لحظه
Misalign= align imperfectly or badly
Misalignment= اختلاف ،غیرهم محور
Module= مدول ، بخش،حدود، ،طرح ، مدل ،نمونه
Monoclonal= derived from a single cell; pertaining to a single clone; تک بنیانی
Moth= بید
Mottle= خالدار،لکه لکه ، رگه رگه
MVA= Motor Vehicle Accident .
Myelography= is an x-ray examination of the spinal canal. A contrast agent is injected through a needle into the space around the spinal cord to display the spinal cord, spinal canal, and nerve roots on an x ray.
Myeloma= تومور بدخیم سلول هاى مغز استخوان
Navicular= زورقى شکل
Neonate= نوزاد
Neoplasm= tumor; abnormal tissue growth
Nidus= جاى تخم گذارى
Node= گره ، برامدگى ،غده
Notch= فرورفتگى
Obliterate= از بین بردن ،محو کردن
Obscure= پوشاندن ،مخفى کردن
Occipital= پس سرى
Odontoid= مانند دندان, (Odontoid process is a toothlike process at the back of 2nd vertebra of the neck)
Olecranon= the process of the ulna projecting behind the elbow (ارنج) joint
Onset= هجوم ،وهله ،شروع
Orifice= روزنه ،سوراخ
Osgood-Schlatter disease= one of the most common causes of knee pain in young athletes. It causes swelling, pain and tenderness just below the knee, over the shin bone (tibia).
Ossification= استخوانى شدن
Osteitis deformans= (Paget disease), this is a chronic bone disorder that typically results in enlarged, deformed bones due to excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue that can cause bones to weaken.
Osteitis= inflammation of bone
Osteoblast= a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. Osteoblasts are also responsible for mineralization of the osteoid matrix. یاخته استخوان ساز
Osteoblastic= pertaining to cells which form bones
Osteochondroma= exostosis; an abnormal solitary benign growth of bone and cartilage typically at the end of a long bone.
Osteoclast= a large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue; an instrument used in surgical osteoclasis (استخوان شکنى براى درست کردن اندان ناقص).
Osteoclastic= pertaining to osteoclasts (cells which absorb calcium from bone and cartilage)
Osteoclastoma= Giant cell tumor of the bone; a relatively uncommon tumor. It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells. These tumors are generally benign.
Osteogenesis imperfecta = hereditary disorder in which bones fracture and break easily from little or no obvious cause
Osteogenic= pertaining to bone formation
Osteoid osteoma= a painful benign tumor usually originating in one of the bones of the lower extremities (سر،ته ،انتها).
Osteoid= like bone; The organic matrix of bone; young bone that has not undergone calcification.
Osteolytic= Causing the breakdown of bone
Osteomalacia= is softening of the bones due to a lack of vitamin D or a problem with the body’s ability to break down and use this vitamin.
Osteomyelitis= refers to a bone infection, almost always caused by a bacteria
Osteophyte= outgrowth on a bone, protrusion on a bone; بر امدگى استخوانى
Osteoplasty= plastic surgery of the bones
Osteoporosis disorder=characterized by the dwindling (تدریجا کاهش‌ یافتن‌) of bones due to loss of calcium which causes pain and often height (ارتفاع) reduction
Osteoporotic= of or pertaining to osteoporosis
Osteotomy= برش استخوان و خارج کردن قسمتى از استخوان
Oval= resembling an ellipse in shape.
Overhanging= برامدگی‌ ، اویزان‌ بودن‌، مشرف‌بودن‌
Paget’s disease= osteitis deformans; a chronic bone disorder in which there is abnormal bone remodeling (the process of bone breakdown and rebuilding). With Paget’s disease, bone is broken down more quickly and is then replaced with softer, more porous bone.
Palate= the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities, سقف دهان
Palatine= ،وابسته بکام یا سقف دهن
Palliative= مسکن موقتى
Pannus= an inflammatory exudate overlying the synovial cells on the inside of a joint.
Paranasal= adjacent to the nasal cavities, نزدیک ِ بینى
Paresis= فلج ناقص ،فلج خفیف
Patchy= تکه تکه ،وصله وصله
Pedicle= slender stalk-like body part on an organism; the segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body; stalk; ساقه اصلى
Periarticular= pertaining to the area around a joint
Pericolic= around the colon
Periosteum= پوشش استخوان
Peritoneum= صفاق
Persist= اصرار کردن‌، ایستادگی
Perthe’s disease= coxa plana; when the ball of the thighbone (استخوان ران) in the hip doesn’t get enough blood, causing the bone to die.
Phenomenon= پدیده ،حادثه ،عارضه
Physis= the segment of a bone that is responsible for lengthening.
Pisiform= شبیه نخود
Plaster= گچ کارى کردن
Pott’s disease= سل ستون فقرات
Predispose= مستعد کردن ،زمینه را مهیا ساختن
Process= جریان کار،زائده ; any bony prominence. (Site of muscle and ligament attachment)
Prominence= برجستگى ،برترى
Prominent= برجسته ،والا
Promontory= دماغه بلند،راس ، برامدگى
Prone= در معرض ،مستعد، درازکش ،دمر
Pronounce= تلفظ کردن‌
Pronounced= معلوم ،مشخص ،مسلم
Protrude= برامدگى داشتن ،جلو امده بودن
Protrusion= act of causing to bulge outward; پیش امدگى
Protuberance= تورم ،بادکردگى
Proximal=closest, nearest; مجاور
Pubic= زهارى ،شرمگاهى
Punch out= to overcome or beat someone by punching
Punch= مشت زدن
Pyloric= pertaining (مربوط به) to the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
Pyrexia= تب
Quantitative= مقدارى ،کمى
Rachitic rosary= beadlike (دانه تسبیحى مانند) bumps present at the junction (محل اتصال) of the ribs with their cartilage
Rachitis= rickets; childhood disease characterized by softening of the bones
Radial=a body part lying near or following the course of the radius; پرتوى ،شعاعى ،محورى
Radiolucent= transparent (شفاف) to radiation
Radiopaque= not allowing radiation to pass through
Ramus= شاخک ; armlike bar of bone. (Helps to form joints)
Rat= موش صحرایى
Recumbent= خوابیده ،خم
Recurrent= عود کننده ،بازگشت کننده
Reduction= تخفیف، کاهش ،احیاء
Resemble= شباهت داشتن
Resolution= دقت ، قدرت تشخیص ، قدرت تفکیک اجزا یا درشت نمایى
Resorption= the process of resorbing or the state of being resorbed; جذب دوباره
Restrict= محدود کردن‌، منحصرکردن‌
Restriction= ممنوعیت ، جلو گیرى
Retroperitoneal= located behind the peritoneum, of or pertaining to the area behind the peritoneum
Rickets= is a childhood condition caused by serious vitamin D deficiency.
Rim= کناره ،دیواره
Rod= عصا،چوب ،ترکه ،میل
Rosary= تسبیح
Rotation= چرخش
Route= مسیر، راه‌،جریان‌
Rupture= جدایی‌، ترکیدن‌، قطع‌ کردن‌، پارگی‌
Sacroiliac= خاصره اى خاجى
Sacrum= استخوان خاجى
Saddle= زین
Sailor= دریانورد
Salter-Harris Fractures= for fractures affecting the growth plate of a bone.
Scallop= a series of indentations (دندانه) or erosions on a normally smooth margin of a structure.
Scaphoid bone= one of the carpal bones of the wrist
Scaphoid= زورقى
Scapula= shoulder blade, large flat bone forming the back of the shoulder, bladebone; استخوان کتف
Schmorl’s node= an upward and downward protrusion (پیش امدگى) of a spinal disk’s soft tissue into the bony tissue of the adjacent vertebrae.
Sciatica= pain or discomfort associated with the sciatic nerve. This nerve runs from the lower part of the spinal cord
Sclera= صلبیه چشم
Sclerotic= pertaining to an abnormal